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Time Scale 5

“BECOMING HUMAN (OR JUST ABOUT):
THE RISE OF HOMO SAPIENS AND OUR NEANDERTHAL COUSINS”
1 million to 100,000 years ago

Homo heidelbergensis

Almost human. Cranium of Homo heidelbergensis from Broken Hill Cave, Zambia ca. 500,000 years ago. These large-brained forms coould make beautiful handaxes and other tools.

Credit: Photo by Kathy Schick, courtesy of the Stone Age Institute. All rights reserved.

This time period documents the spread of Homo erectus and their descendants through much of the Old World, and the first appearance of our species, Homo sapiens or anatomically modern humans, in Africa. A sister species found at this time in Europe and the Near East was Homo neandertalensis or “Neandertal Man,” which was contemporary with modern humans during the later range of this time period. It also appears that surviving populations of Homo erectus may have existed in East Asia throughout much of this period.

There are a number of new innovations that emerge in the prehistoric record at this time - more symmetrical and refined handaxes and cleavers, the first antler and bone soft hammers for delicate flaking of stone, the first known wooden spears (and probably more habitual hunting of larger game), possibly early ritualistic behavior, and by the end of this Time Scale, the widespread controlled use of fire. There is a slow shift from the Acheulean handaxe and cleaver technologies to technologies stressing smaller flake tools, some with prepared core strategies for producing special types of flakes, that are characteristic of the Middle Palaeolithic or Middle Stone Age.

Over this period of this time, our ancestors evolved much larger brains, settled in many tropical and temperate areas of Europe and Asia. Adaptation to cooler climates is unusual in primates, and these hominins probably used material culture (e.g. hides for clothing and blankets, fire) to adapt to these new conditions.

Event 41

“BIG BRAINS, BIG FACES”
HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS AND PROBABLY LANGUAGE
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

Happisburgh, England site of earliest humans in Northern EuropeAround 500,000 years ago, prehistoric humans in Africa and Europe evolved into creatures with brains rivaling the size of modern humans (~1250 cubic centimeters), yet still retaining the massive faces (and robust limbs) characteristic of earlier Homo. These large-brained forms were formerly called “archaic Homo sapiens” but many anthropologists now put these fossils into their own species.

Read more: Event 41

Event 42

“FEARFUL SYMMETRY”
LATER REFINED HANDAXES
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

laterhandaxeHundreds of thousands of years before the first representational art, ancient humans began to make drop-dead gorgeous stone tools, namely more refined handaxes often made by the use of a “soft hammer," an object softer than the stone being flaked. Such soft hammers could have been made of wood, bone, antler, ivory, or even softer stone. These handaxe and cleaver forms, from the later Acheulean industry, show a mastery of craftsmanship that produced thinner, sharper, and more symmetrical tools, and many scientists would say these tools show a sense of aesthetics and even bravado on the part of their makers. These forms indicate that their tool-makers (probably mainly Homo heidelbergensis) had a stronger cognitive sense of style and symmetry than earlier hominins.

Read more: Event 42

Event 43

“BRING OUT YOUR DEAD”
THE ORIGINS OF RITUAL BEHAVIOR
400,000 years ago

05 043 001zsimahandaxeAll modern human societies have cultural norms of how to treat the dead: burial, cremation, or some other treatment. How far back can we trace this treatment fo the dead (called mortuary practice)? At the amazing site of Atapuerca in Spain, dating to about 400,000 years ago, one locatlity, called "The Pit of the Bones," the fossil human bones of over 30 individuals of Homo heidelbergensis were found deep in a cave at the bottom of a forty-foot shaft. This may be evidence of the earliest mortuary practice, and possibly the first known ritualistic behavior.

Read more: Event 43

Event 44

“GET THE POINT?”
THE FIRST SPEARS
400,000 years ago

Schoeningen SpearA long, pointed piece of wood can be a very lethal hunting weapon. A spear used as a thrusting or throwing weapon can greatly increase an individual’s hunting success, as compared to throwing rocks or using clubs. (Even in recent times, a bayonet fixed to the end of a rifle was a makeshift spear and a weapon of last resort). At the German site of Schoeningen, dating to about 400,000 years ago, five complete and partial wooden spears were preserved in waterlogged deposits associated with stone tools (a non-handaxe industry) and fossil mammal remains.

Read more: Event 44

Event 45

“CHIPS OFF THE OLD BLOCK”
PREPARED CORE TECHNOLOGIES
300,000 years ago

Levallois Prepared Core and FlakeDuring the time period of later handaxe industries, around 300,000 years ago, hominin populations (Homo heidelbergensis) began to strike off special types of flakes from carefully-prepared cores. This ability to predict the outcome from one blow to a core indicates better conceptual abilities and a better control of flaking stone as well.

Read more: Event 45

Event 46

“LIGHT MY FIRE”
THE CONTROLLED USE OF FIRE
300,000 years ago

Use of FireFire revolutionized early human societies. It extended light into the night, produced warmth in cold weather, helped to keep predators away, and cooked raw foods, making them more digestible and safer to eat. Although evidence for fire in the form of baked sediments and burnt bones and stone artifacts can be found at very early stone age sites (around 2.0 to 1.5 million years ago), these could be the product of natural brush fires or lightning strikes. It is not until the last 300,000 years that hominins began to control the manufacture of fire, and identifiable hearths and burnt archaeological remains begin to become common.

Read more: Event 46

Event 47

“ALMOST HUMAN”
NEANDERTALS AND NEARLY MODERN HUMANS
Beginning 250,000 years ago

Neanderthal skullIn some parts of the world, around 250,000 years ago, some proto-human populations evolved into physical forms more reminiscent of modern humans: they retained the large brains of Homo heidelbergensis but showed changes such as less robust facial features. In Europe these forms were the Neandertals or Homo neandertalensis, while in Africa they appear to have been evolving into forms on the line to anatomically modern humans. Some anthropologists have called these African forms a new species, Homo helmei, while others think they are just a slightly more robust form of Homo sapiens. These forms would co-evolve for the next 230,000 years, with the Neandertals finally disappearing.

Read more: Event 47

Event 48

“WELCOME TO MIDDLE EARTH”
THE MIDDLE PALAEOLITHIC
Beginning 250,000 years ago

Middle Paleolithic ToolsWith the rise of the lineages leading to Neandertals (Homo neandertalensis) and modern humans (Homo sapiens), technologies slowly shifted from the larger handaxe and cleaver technologies of the Acheulean (later Early Stone Age) to what is called the Middle Palaeolithic (or Middle Stone Age in Subsaharan Africa) characterized by more standardized and smaller flake tools, sometimes produced by prepared core technologies. As previously mentioned, fire becomes much more common in this period, indicating a mastery in the production and maintenance of fire. It is likely that hunting techniques became better developed and better organized during this time as well.

Read more: Event 48

Event 49

“SEASHELLS BY THE SEASHORE”
INTENSIVE EXPLOITATION OF SEAFOODS
165,000 years ago

Neanderthals at GibraltarModern humans tend to have a passion for seafood, although eating them in the wrong season (when natural “red tides,” algal blooms rich in microorganisms can contaminate shellfish) can make them dangerous to eat because of toxins produced. The intensive exploitation of shellfish suggests a profound knowledge of the natural history of shellfish, and probably novel technologies for collecting them. Excavations at a site on the South African coast, the cave of Pinnacle Point, indicates that Middle Stone Age peoples were beginning to systematically exploit shellfish such as mussels, periwinkles, and whelks here, showing an intensive use of such sea resources by at least 165,000 years ago. These shellfish deposits were associated with typical Middle Stone Age points and scrapers, and are roughly the age of early anatomically modern humans or Homo sapiens (see the next event).

Read more: Event 49

Event 50

“A MODERN STONE AGE FAMILY”
THE EMERGENCE OF HOMO SAPIENS
160,000 years ago

CroMagnon ManLook in a mirror. You are a fine example of an anatomically modern human or Homo sapiens. You have a very large brain (probably with a volume of about 1350 cubic centimeters, or about 4 cans of soda), and have a more spherical cranium with a high vertical forehead, and a more delicate face and skeleton than earlier pre-modern human ancestors. You can communicate symbolically, which includes your ability to read and understand this text, and can talk about the past, the present, the future, and the hypothetical. About 160,000 years ago, our direct ancestors emerged from archaic populations in Africa and evolved into Homo sapiens, ultimately the only hominid species on the earth. You are a member of this exclusive club.

Read more: Event 50

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1

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe,
the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

.

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe, the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

View Time Scale >>

1

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

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2

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

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3

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

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4

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

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5

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

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6

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

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7

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

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8

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

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9

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

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10

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

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2

"All Creatures Great and Small:
The Cambrian Explosion of
Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

.

"Animal House:
The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

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11

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

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12

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

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13

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

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14

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

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15

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

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16

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

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17

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

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18

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

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19

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

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20

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

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3

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction
and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

.

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

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21

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

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22

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

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23

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

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24

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

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25

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

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26

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

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27

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

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28

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

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29

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

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30

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

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4

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids,
the Role of Rock,
and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

.

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids, the Role of Rock, and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

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31

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

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32

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

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33

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

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34

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

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35

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

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36

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

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37

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

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38

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

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39

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

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40

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

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5

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens
and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

.

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

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41

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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42

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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43

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

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44

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

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45

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

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46

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

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47

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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48

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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49

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

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50

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

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6

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language,
Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

.

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language, Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

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51

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

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52

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

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53

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

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54

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

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55

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

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56

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

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57

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

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58

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

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59

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

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60

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

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7

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions
and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

.

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

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61

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

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62

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

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63

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

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64

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

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65

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

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66

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

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67

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

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68

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

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69

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

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70

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

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8

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition
to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

.

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

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71

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

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72

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

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73

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

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74

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

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75

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

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76

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

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77

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

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78

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

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79

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

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80

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

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9

"Modern Times: The Last Century,
Laying the Foundations of
the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

.

"Modern Times: The Last Century, Laying the Foundations of the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

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81

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

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82

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

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83

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

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84

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

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85

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

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86

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

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87

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

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88

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

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89

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

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90

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

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10

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations
and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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91

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

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92

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

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93

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

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94

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

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95

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

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96

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

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97

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

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98

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

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99

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

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100

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

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