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Time Scale 4

“UPSTANDING APES:
THE RISE OF HOMINIDS, THE ROLE OF ROCK, AND FOOD FOR THOUGHT”
10 million to 1 million years ago

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Early bipedal ancestors. Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein Cave, South Africa ca. 2.5 million years ago, an example of a small-brained bipedal hominin.

Credit: Photo by Kathy Schick, courtesy of the Stone Age Institute. All rights reserved.

How did our ape-like ancestors come to be human? This time scale documents the transition from our ape-like ancestors to the earliest bipedal hominids. The earlier parts of this story occurred on the African continent during a time of climatic fluctuation and a general cooling and drying phase. By five million years ago human ancestors were walking upright but still had small, ape-like brains. By two-and-a-half million years ago, two major hominid branches had emerged: the smaller-brained, larger-toothed robust australopithecines (destined for extinction), and the larger-brained ancestors of what would become ourselves, modern humans.

The first recognizable stone tools and cut-marked animal bones emerge about two-and-a-half million years ago as well. The earliest documented human technology consists of battered pebbles that were used to flake stone as well as to crack open animal bones, and flaked cobble-cores and the resultant flakes and fragments struck off of them. Cut-marks and percussion fracture marks on animal bones indicate that tool-using hominids were butchering a range of smaller and larger animals and feeding on the meat and marrow. Technology could have also been used to shape and sharpen sticks for digging up edible roots and tubers and for making containers for carrying plant foods and other materials. These earliest technologies (called the “Oldowan” after the famous site of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania) are contempory with smaller-brained australopithecines, Australopithecus garhi in East Africa and Australopithecus africanus in South Africa. These hominids had brains about one-third the size of modern humans.

By around two million years ago, human ancestors were developing larger brains and smaller jaws and teeth, probably with the habitual use of stone tools and other material culture and technology. Quite likely a feedback system was co-evolving between biology, on one hand, and technology and culture on the other. The earliest forms of our own genus, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis, emerged at this time, hominids with larger brains, about one-half the size of that of modern humans. By 1.8 million years ago, humans had spread from Africa to Eurasia.

A new hominid form, Homo erectus, emerged about 1.7 million years ago. This human ancestor had a brain about two-thirds the size of that of a modern human, and similar body proportions and size to modern humans as well. With the emergence of Homo erectus all other major hominid forms, including the robust australopithecines, appear to go extinct. Coinciding with the emergence of this new hominid form is a new technology, called the “Acheulean”, characterized by large cutting tools, handaxes and cleavers, made on large flakes struck from boulder-cores.

Event 31

“BRANCHING OUT”
THE LAST SHARED ANCESTOR OF APES AND HUMANS
7 million years ago

SahelanthropusGenetic evidence suggests that humans and our closest relatives, the African apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos or “pygmy chimpanzees”) shared a common ancestor but then went down different evolutionary pathways (an evolutionary “split” or branch) around seven million years ago. The further back we go in the human fossil record, the more these forms are ape-like. Unfortunately, we have very few fossils between 10 and 7 million years ago, so that this hypothetical last common ancestor is still elusive. As previously mentioned, animals that lived in dense, wet tropical forests are not great candidates for fossilization, as these damp and often acid conditions are not conducive to bone fossilization. But the actual event, this divergence between the human and ape line, is a critical one in our evolutionary history.

Read more: Event 31

Event 32

“UPSTANDING APES”
THE EARLIEST BIPEDAL HOMININS
6 to 4 million years ago

ArdipithecusOne of the major features that separates humans from the apes is our mode of locomotion (getting around). On the ground, the modern African apes, all members of the taxonomic tribe Paninae walk on all fours (“knuckle walking”), while humans are of the tribe Homininae (“hominin”), and have evolved to walk upright on two legs. This way of getting around is called bipedality. This fundamental shift and icon of humanity can be seen in the fossil record starting around six million years ago. Two fossil localities in Africa have yielded specimens that appear to show hominin features.

Read more: Event 32

Event 33

“I AM AN APE-MAN”
THE EARLIER AUSTRALOPITHECINES
4.0-2.5 million years ago

Australopithecus afarensisThe “classic” ape-men, members of the genus Australopithecus, were first discovered and described in the 1920’s in South Africa. Since then, many more sites in South Africa and in the East African Rift have yielded remains of these small-brained (c. 450 cc), upright-walking creatures, the most famous being “Lucy” discovered at Hadar in Ethiopia. These so-called “ape-men” show some features that are ape-like such as a small brain, a jutting lower face, large canines, and curved phalanges (finger and toe bones), along with more human-like traits such as a broad pelvis, an angled knee joint, and jaws and teeth adapted for chewing side-to-side.

Read more: Event 33

Event 34

“THE BIG CHILL”
THE BEGINNING OF CLIMATIC COOLING

 3 to 2 million years ago

Cooling Climate Graph Between three and two million years ago, the African continent and the earth in general experienced a gradual climatic shift to cooler, drier conditions. In many places, tropical forests became woodlands, and woodland became grasslands over time. This cooling phase is correlated with the earliest known stone tools and the emergence of the larger-brained hominin, the genus Homo, as well as the so-called “robust australopithecines.” It is also a time of a major “faunal turnover,” a time when many animal lineages went extinct, while others evolve into new species over time. Prehistoric evidence suggests that hominins became more adapted to more open woodlands and grasslands during this period, an adaptation which became characteristic of the human lineage in Africa for much of its subsequent prehistory.

Read more: Event 34

Event 35

“OUR POOR COUSINS”
THE LATER AUSTRALOPITHECINES AND THEIR EXTINCTION
2.6-1.0 million years ago

Australopithecus boiseiThere was more than one evolutionary experiment in upright walking. One branch, represented by the genus Homo, led to us. Another branch, represented by the so-called “robust australopithecines”, co-existed with our ancestors for over one-and-a-half million years. These bipedal hominins were characterized by small front teeth and huge cheek teeth, a slightly larger brain than earlier australopithecines (~550 cc), flared cheek bones, and, in males, a bony (sagittal) crest running down the center of the skull for the attachment of massive chewing muscles.

Read more: Event 35

Event 36

“THE ROLE OF ROCK”
THE EARLIEST STONE TOOLS
2.6 million years ago

“…and we’ll be saying a big hello to all intelligent life forms everywhere…and to everyone else out there, the secret is to bang the rocks together, guys…”
Douglas Adams, 1981, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, p. 96.

Gona FlakeWe are a very, very strange species… We are the only animal on the planet that is totally dependent upon tools and technology for our existence. None of us could survive anywhere in the world without some reliance upon various sorts of tools. What is more, our technological behavior is learned rather than instinctive, and is culturally transmitted from generation to generation. Tools have not only shaped our adaptation, but have also shaped our brains and our bodies, over millions of years.

Read more: Event 36

Event 37

“I’M YOUR HANDY MAN”
THE EMERGENCE OF THE GENUS HOMO AND BRAIN EXPANSION
1.9-1.5 million years ago

Homo habilis OlduvaiIt is likely that the earliest known hominins to flake stone tools around two-and-a-half million years ago were members of the small-brained genus Australopithecus, perhaps with a brain size of 450 cc. Within a half a million years of the earliest stone tools, something fascinating happened: some hominids evolved with substantially larger brain sizes, over 600 cc. Scientists named these larger-brained forms Homo habilis (Latin for “Handy Man”, referring to their ability to make and use stone tools) and put them into our own genus. Another form, Homo rudolfensis, had perhaps an even larger brain (~775 cc) but a massive face with large teeth. These forms were probably responsible for much of Oldowan stone technology. There are a number of hypotheses trying to explain why and how brains started enlarging over the course of human evolution.

Read more: Event 37

Event 38

“BIGGER AND BADDER”
THE EMERGENCE OF HOMO ERECTUS
1.8 million years ago

Homo erectus or Peking ManIn 1879 naturalist Ernst Haeckel proposed a hypothetical “missing link” between apes and humans. He called this Pithecanthropus erectus. In 1891 Dutch army doctor Eugene Dubois found fossil human remains in Java that he named after Haeckel’s hypothetical species. Today we know that such proto-human fossils are members of our own genus but are of a different species, which we now call Homo erectus.

Read more: Event 38

Event 39

“OUT OF AFRICA”
THE EARLIEST EURASIANS
1.8 million years ago


Dmanisi SkullA little over a decade ago, many anthropologists thought that hominin populations did not move out of Africa and into Eurasia until about one million years ago. This view changed radically with the discovery of the prehistoric site Dmanisi in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains in the Republic of Georgia (formerly part of the Soviet Union). Here, in geological deposits dating to approximately 1.7 million years ago were found simple Oldowan-like stone tools and five fairly complete skulls of hominins with brain sizes of 600-700 cc.

Read more: Event 39

Event 40

“AXES OF POWER”
THE INVENTION OF THE HANDAXE
1.76 million years ago

Early HandaxesBetween 1.7 and 1.5 million years ago, stone age hominins began to make new types of tools. By either striking large flake blanks from boulder cores, or by using large river cobbles the began to make crude pointed or oval-shaped objects called handaxes by archaeologists, and sharp, guillotine-bit cleavers. These types of tools are characteristic of the Acheulean industry, which begins to replace the simpler Oldowan industry starting at this time.

Read more: Event 40

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1

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe,
the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

.

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe, the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

View Time Scale >>

1

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

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2

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

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3

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

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4

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

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5

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

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6

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

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7

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

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8

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

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9

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

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10

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

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2

"All Creatures Great and Small:
The Cambrian Explosion of
Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

.

"Animal House:
The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

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11

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

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12

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

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13

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

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14

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

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15

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

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16

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

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17

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

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18

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

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19

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

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20

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

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3

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction
and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

.

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

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21

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

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22

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

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23

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

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24

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

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25

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

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26

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

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27

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

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28

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

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29

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

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30

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

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4

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids,
the Role of Rock,
and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

.

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids, the Role of Rock, and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

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31

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

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32

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

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33

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

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34

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

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35

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

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36

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

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37

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

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38

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

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39

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

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40

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

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5

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens
and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

.

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

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41

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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42

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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43

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

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44

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

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45

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

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46

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

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47

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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48

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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49

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

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50

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

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6

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language,
Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

.

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language, Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

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51

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

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52

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

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53

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

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54

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

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55

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

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56

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

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57

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

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58

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

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59

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

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60

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

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7

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions
and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

.

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

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61

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

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62

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

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63

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

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64

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

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65

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

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66

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

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67

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

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68

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

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69

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

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70

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

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8

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition
to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

.

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

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71

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

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72

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

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73

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

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74

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

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75

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

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76

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

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77

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

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78

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

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79

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

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80

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

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9

"Modern Times: The Last Century,
Laying the Foundations of
the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

.

"Modern Times: The Last Century, Laying the Foundations of the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

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81

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

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82

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

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83

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

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84

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

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85

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

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86

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

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87

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

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88

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

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89

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

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90

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

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10

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations
and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

.

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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91

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

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92

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

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93

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

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94

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

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95

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

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96

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

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97

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

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98

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

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99

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

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100

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

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