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Time Scale 3

“THE MEEK INHERITORS
[OR ONE EXTRATERRESTIAL IMPACT CAN RUIN YOUR WHOLE DAY]:
THE DINOSAUR EXTINCTION AND THE RISE OF MAMMALS”
100 million to 10 million years ago

Cretaceous Impact

About 65 million years ago, an extraterrestrial impact wreaked havoc on earth's life forms. The vestiges of the catastrophe are recorded in the geological strata that is known as the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary.

Credit: Illustration by Don Davis, courtesy of NASA

How did mammals and birds come to replace the reptilian dinosaurs as the major inheritors of the earth? The later evolution of the dinosaurs occurred between 100 and 65 million years ago, including such forms as Tyrannosaurus rex and Velociraptor as well as the three-horned Triceratops.

It now appears that 65 million years ago the earth was struck by a large extraterrestrial body (an asteroid or comet) about 5 miles in diameter, about the size of Mt. Everest). This catastrophic impact (now known from a 100 mile-wide crater off the coast of Yucatan, Mexico) would have created a 5 mile-high tidal wave in coastal areas, reaching far into the continents and flooding much of the land. This was followed by a firestorm of countless rock fragments launched into space only to re-enter the earth’s atmosphere as fireballs heating much of the earth to oven-like temperatures. The massive quantities of dust particles created by the impact circled the earth and probably then caused a cold, dark “nuclear winter”, in which much of the earth’s plant life would have perished, starving many of the surviving animals that would have fed on them. Talk about being in the wrong place at the wrong time! Geologically, the strata documenting this catastrophe have been called the “K-T” or Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary.

About two-thirds of the existing species perished and are not found in the fossil record after this event (that is, above the K-T Boundary), including all of the dinosaurs. This apparently opened vast niches for mammals and birds, as well as a host of other animals, and created conditions for the rapid spread and diversification of new forms. The major orders of mammals emerged during this time, including marsupials (kangaroos, platypus, etc.), insectivores (moles, shrews, hedgehogs), lagomorphs (hares and rabbits), carnivores (dogs, cats, hyenas, bears, raccoons, skunks, otters, etc), rodents (mice, rats, chipmunks, squirrels, hamsters, gerbils, etc.), bats, sea mammals (whales and dolphins), artiodactyls (even-toed giraffes, deer, antelope, cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, hippos, and camels), perissodactyls (odd-toed animals including rhinos, horses, and tapirs), edentates (armadillos, sloths, and anteaters), and hyraxes and dassies. The first representatives of our order, the primates, emerged during this time. The fossil primate record documents the evolution of the first prosimians, monkeys, and apes over the following tens of millions of years.

Event 21

“CRETACEOUS PARK”
THE LATER DINOSAURS
95-65 million years ago

Elasmosaurus and CriorhyncusA golden age of dinosaur evolution occurred during the later Cretaceous Period between approximately 95 and 65 million years ago. The climate was warm then, with higher sea levels and no ice at the poles. This was the time period of many of the famous dinosaurs, including meat-eaters such as Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, (both featured in the somewhat misnamed movie “Jurassic Park”), Oviraptor,and plant-eaters such as the three-horned Triceratops, the duck-billed Hadrosaurus, and the armored and spike-tailed Ankylosaurus. All indications were that dinosaurs would continue to be the dominant animal form for millions of years into the future, but, as we will see in the next event, Fate had other ideas…

Read more: Event 21

Event 22

“ONE EXTRATERRESTRIAL IMPACT CAN RUIN YOUR WHOLE DAY”:
THE DINOSAUR EXTINCTION
65 million years ago

Tyranosaurus in meteor showerImagine the worst day of your life. Multiply that by the largest number you can think of. That’s the kind of day you would have had some 65 million years ago when a six-mile-wide asteroid struck the earth, travelling as fast as 5,000 miles per hour. Its impact created a catastrophic explosion - triggering massive earthquakes, creating gigantic tidal waves, igniting massive forest fires, and releasing huge quantities of acidic gases into the atmosphere to fall to the earth as acid rain. A massive dust cloud would have covered the earth, blocking sunlight and creating a so-called cold “nuclear winter” for several years, killing much of remaining vegetation, followed by a stifling “greenhouse” warming period. This was the second largest extinction event in the history of the earth, with 75 percent of all species going extinct, including all of the large land reptiles (dinosaurs), sea reptiles (plesiosaurs), and air reptiles (pterosaurs). Luckily, many smaller reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals survived this terrible event and continued on to inherit this brave new world.

Read more: Event 22

Event 23

“A WARM AND FUZZY FEELING”
THE MAMMALIAN RADIATION
60 million years ago


Diagram of Mammalian Adaptive RadiationWith the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, mammals had many new niches available to them. These warm-blooded, hairy forms, with sweat glands modified to feed milk to their young, were particularly able to adapt to the many land and sea niches left open after the dinosaurs died out. Mammals had been around for some time, coexisting with the dominant dinosaurs for millions of years.

These small insect-eating animals fed at night to help escape being eaten themselves! After the dinosaurs were gone, the mammals soon spread and became very diverse, becoming the dominant animals on the earth up to today (thus the name for our era, “The Age of Mammals.”

Read more: Event 23

Event 24

“OROGENOUS ZONE”
THE FORMATION OF THE HIMALAYAS
55 million years ago

Himalayan SubductionMost mountain ranges were created by the collision of one of the earth’s moving plates with another, producing uplift or “orogeny.” Around 167 million years ago the Indian subcontinent (connected then to Australia and Madagascar) broke off of Africa and subsequently began drifting eastward, then broke off of Australia and started drifting northward, culminating in a massive collision with Asia starting around 55 million years ago. This crunching together of two continental plates, the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate, began slowly but surely to create the highest mountain range in the world today, with the peak of Mount Everest reaching 29,028 feet above sea level. The creation of the Himalayas radically affected the courses of river systems and created a major biogeographical barrier for plants and animals, including our ancestors, and has drastically affected not only Asian climate, but likely that of the entire planet.

Read more: Event 24

Event 25

“OF THE FIRST ORDER”
THE RADIATION OF THE PRIMATES
55 million years ago

Darwinius massilae fossilThe 17th century Swedish naturalist Carol Linnaeus got it right - When he developed his system of biological classification now called Linnaean taxonomy, he correctly grouped humans, apes and monkeys into the order Primates (meaning “first” or “top”). Compared to other mammals, primates are characterized by having relatively large brains to body size, nails rather than claws, stereoscopic (“3-D”) vision, color vision, and an overall reduction in the snout and organs for smell. They tend to give birth to small litters and spend more time caring for their young as well. The fossil record shows that, as is the case of most mammal orders, primates evolved from a shrew-like ancestor between 65 and 55 million years ago.

Read more: Event 25

Event 26

“THE LAND DOWN UNDER”
THE ORIGIN OF AUSTRALIA AND ITS ANIMALS
40 million years ago

Baby KoalaBy 80 million years ago, due to plate tectonics, the Australian landmass (originally containing New Guinea and Tasmania) began to separate from Antarctica (both landmasses containing marsupial mammals, then being much closer to the equator), and by 40 million years ago had no more contact with the rest of the Old World. It then began its unique evolutionary history dominated by marsupial mammals. Naturalist Alfred Wallace (along with Charles Darwin, the co-discoverer of evolution by natural selection) was one of the first to notice a biogeographical barrier separating the marsupial animals of Australia and adjacent islands from the placental mammals of the rest of the Old World. This became known as the “Wallace Line”.

Read more: Event 26

Event 27

“HEY, HEY, WE’RE THE MONKEYS”
THE RISE OF MONKEYS
35 million years ago

AegyptopithecusMonkeys differ from more primitive primates (called prosimians or “pre-monkeys”) by having larger brains relative to body size, a different number of teeth in the upper and lower jaws, and often a larger body size. The earliest monkey-like forms, Apidium and Aegyptopithecus emerged around 35 million years ago in the Africa. At around this time it is also believed the ancestors of the New World monkeys migrated to the Americas, possibly living on floating island of vegetation as they drifted across the Atlantic Ocean to South America, which was significantly closer to Africa than today due to plate tectonics and perhaps also a lower sea level some of the time.

Read more: Event 27

Event 28

“GRAZING IN THE GRASS”
THE SPREAD OF GRASSLANDS AND GRAZING ANIMALS
Beginning 25 million years ago

GrasslandWe tend to take grasses for granted. We mow them in our front yards, we eat them in the form of wheat, rye barley, rice, and corn, and their pollen can give us sneezing fits from hay fever. Yet grasses only started becoming common on earth starting about 25 million years ago and especially widespread in the form of prairies starting about 7 million years ago.

 

Read more: Event 28

Event 29

“THE SULTANS OF SWING”
THE RISE OF APES
23 million years ago

Dryopithecus swinging through the treesWe belong to an advanced group of primates called the apes, who evolved in the trees of the Old World during the past 35 million years. What are apes? Apes are primates that have descended from prehistoric monkey ancestors, but differ from monkeys in having larger brains, usually larger bodies, and no tail; the arms of an ape are also highly mobile, allowing them (and us) to rotate the arm a full 360 degrees. Apes, including humans, are members of the superfamily Hominoidea or “hominoids”. These include, in increasing order of relatedness to humans, the so-called “Lesser Apes”, (the gibbons and siamangs of southeast Asia); and the “Great Apes” (the Orangutan of southeast Asia and the African apes: gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos or “pygmy chimpanzees”. In the trees, non-human apes are known for their swinging (brachiation) and climbing skills.

Read more: Event 29

Event 30

“FATHER OF KONG”
THE EARLIEST GORILLA-LIKE FORMS
10 million years ago

Chororapithecus jawGenetic evidence suggests that the last common ancestor of the African apes (chimpanzees, bonobos or pygmy chimpanzees, and gorillas) and humans was around seven million years ago. African ape fossils are not very common, probably because they tended to live in humid, tropical forests with acid soils that do not preserve bones very well. Many anthropologists suspected that earlier African apes might look more similar in size and shape to modern chimpanzees or bonobos than to the much larger gorillas.

Read more: Event 30

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1

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe,
the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

.

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe, the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

View Time Scale >>

1

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

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2

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

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3

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

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4

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

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5

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

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6

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

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7

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

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8

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

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9

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

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10

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

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2

"All Creatures Great and Small:
The Cambrian Explosion of
Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

.

"Animal House:
The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

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11

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

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12

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

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13

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

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14

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

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15

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

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16

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

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17

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

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18

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

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19

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

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20

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

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3

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction
and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

.

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

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21

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

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22

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

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23

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

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24

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

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25

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

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26

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

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27

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

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28

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

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29

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

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30

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

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4

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids,
the Role of Rock,
and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

.

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids, the Role of Rock, and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

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31

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

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32

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

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33

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

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34

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

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35

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

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36

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

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37

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

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38

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

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39

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

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40

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

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5

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens
and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

.

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

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41

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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42

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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43

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

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44

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

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45

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

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46

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

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47

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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48

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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49

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

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50

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

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6

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language,
Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

.

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language, Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

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51

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

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52

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

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53

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

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54

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

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55

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

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56

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

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57

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

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58

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

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59

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

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60

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

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7

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions
and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

.

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

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61

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

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62

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

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63

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

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64

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

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65

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

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66

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

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67

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

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68

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

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69

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

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70

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

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8

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition
to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

.

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

View Time Scale >>

71

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

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72

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

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73

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

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74

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

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75

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

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76

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

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77

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

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78

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

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79

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

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80

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

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9

"Modern Times: The Last Century,
Laying the Foundations of
the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

.

"Modern Times: The Last Century, Laying the Foundations of the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

View Time Scale >>

81

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

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82

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

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83

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

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84

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

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85

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

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86

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

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87

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

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88

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

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89

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

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90

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

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10

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations
and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

.

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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91

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

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92

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

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93

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

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94

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

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95

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

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96

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

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97

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

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98

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

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99

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

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100

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

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