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Time Scale 1

“FROM NOTHING TO EVERYTHING:
THE ORIGINS OF THE UNIVERSE, THE SOLAR SYSTEM, EARTH, AND LIFE”
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

01deepspace

This is an image of some of the farthest galaxies ever seen from a time when the universe was about 400 million years old. Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the image shows some of the first galaxies that were formed shortly after the big bang occured.

Credit: Photo by NASA/ESA/S. Beckwith(STScI) and The HUDF Team, Courtesy of NASA>

How did the universe come to be? When did this happen? For most of us, the processes that created the universe are so foreign and bizarre to our everyday experiences that they stretch our imaginations to their limits. Physics, astronomy, and mathematics have provided most of the evidence for the story of our cosmic genesis.

The story begins some 13.7 billion years ago with the “Big Bang”, where the entire contents of the universe emerged from nothingness. Exactly how and why this came to be is not known. Our universe is believed to have been originally compressed into a single point smaller than the size of an atom, a point of unimaginable heat and density. Matter, energy, time, and space were created in that first millisecond of the “Big Bang”. This was followed by a rapid expansion of the universe, a primordial, cosmic plasma “soup” in which a battle ensued between matter and antimatter particles annihilating each other into oblivion. A small amount of that matter won out, and makes up the 'stuff' of the world we know.

Over the course of billions of years, as the very early universe continued to expand and cool, new components of the universe appeared in sequence: subatomic particles, simple atoms (e.g. helium and hydrogen), clouds of gas (nebulae), and then stars. Gravity continued to cluster stars into galaxies, and hypernovae explosions produced heavier elements, scattering them through the universe.

Among the trillions of stars that formed, an enormous grouping of over 200 billion stars formed, our Milky Way galaxy. One star on an outer arm of the Milky Way is our sun. As our sun coalesced from its solar nebula about 4.6 billion years ago, the planets of our solar system -including the earth - began to form from the accumulation of gas and dust into small particles. Around 4.5 billion years ago, the early earth was catastrophically struck by a Mars-sized planet - tilting the earth on its axis, and, from the debris, creating the moon.

During the next several hundred million years, the earth developed its liquid oceans, rocky continents, and a primitive, oxygen-poor atmosphere. Out of these conditions the earliest life emerged, almost certainly in the oceans. The earliest life forms were simple, single-celled organisms with DNA that could reproduce. By 3.5 billion years ago, cyanobacteria, simple life forms without a nucleus, were producing oxygen through photosynthesis, converting our atmosphere to one that ultimately supported more complex life, including cells with a nucleus and, ultimately, sexual reproduction.

Event 1

"THE BIG BANG"
THE ORIGINS OF MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, AND TIME
13.798 billion years ago

13.7 billion year old temperature fluctuationsSome 13.798 billion years ago, our universe (matter, energy, space, and time) came into existence. Exactly how and why this happened is not really understood. It is believed that all of the matter that now exists in the universe was originally compressed into a point smaller than the size of an atom called a singularity, which rapidly expanded. This expansion, first faster than the speed of light, has been dubbed "The Big Bang." The matter of the universe first consisted of a superhot plasma from which the first subatomic particles formed. As the universe expanded, in its first few minutes, it began to cool, forming the first primeval atoms: hydrogen, helium, and lithium.

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Event 2

 “GREAT BALLS OF FIRE”
THE FIRST STARS
13.5 billion years ago

First StarsSoon after the Big Bang (in cosmic terms), perhaps 200 million years later, the matter in the universe had expanded and cooled, and began to coalesce by gravity into denser clouds of gas. As these clouds of gas collapsed even further, they reached sizes, densities, and temperatures large enough to begin nuclear reactions and ignite to become true stars.

 

Read more: Event 2

Event 3

“COSMIC ALCHEMY”
THE CREATION OF THE HEAVIER ELEMENTS
13.4 billion years ago

Crab nebulaAncient alchemists dreamed of converting simpler materials into gold (discovering the so-called “philospher’s stone” they thought could accomplish this). Although alchemists were never able to do this, such alchemy happens in the universe all the time. The earliest stars were composed only of the lightest, simplest elements of hydrogen and helium and smaller amounts of deuterium and lithium. It is thought that many of these stars were of enormous size, some hundreds of times larger than our sun. All stars burn through nuclear fusion. Stars smaller than our sun only produce helium from hydrogen in this fusion process. Somewhat larger stars go on to produce heavier elements through fusion, including elements such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium and iron. The stellar giants (stars over ten times the mass of our sun) tend to have a relatively short life before they explode (such explosions are called “supernovae”).  During this cataclysmic end, these stars producing all of the heaviest elements found in nature (such as nickel, copper, zinc, silver, gold, mercury, lead, and uranium), seeding the universe with clouds (nebulae) of the dust of these heavier elements.

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Event 4

“SPINNING WHEELS”
THE FIRST GALAXIES
13 billion years ago

The Milky Way, with our Sun's locationStars, attracted to other stars by gravity, formed clusters of stars that formed gigantic spinning discs called galaxies that are usually spiral-shaped (like our own Milky Way) or more elliptical (football-shaped), possibly formed by the merging of two galaxies or more. It is believed that the first galaxies formed around 13 billion years, and the Milky Way may be this old. It now appears that most if not all galaxies contain a supermassive black hole at their center, and there is a growing suspicion that these galaxies and black holes may be necessarily linked.

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Event 5

“HERE COMES THE SUN”
THE BIRTH OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM & THE EARTH
4.6 billion years ago

Moon formation (possibly how our moon was formed)Around 4.6 billion years ago, our solar dust cloud (nebula) began to be compressed, probably from a supernova explosion from another star system. As this nebula collapsed, this dust contracted to form a large spinning flattened disk of very hot gas, with a bulge at the center that would ultimately become our sun. The outer layer of gas (the “accretion disk”) cooled off sufficiently that solid matter starts to condense into very small particles of metal and then rock. These dust particles accumulated by gravity into larger and larger chunks of matter, called planetoids. At a certain size (perhaps tens of miles in diameter), heat from countless impacts and the additional heat of radioactive decay of matter inside these bodies totally melted them. Strong gravitational forces quickly concentrated most of the matter at the core of this spinning disk of gas and particles, about 99 percent, into our local star, the sun. The sun became a giant nuclear fusion reactor and ignited, generating enormous amounts of heat and light. The residual matter of the solar system, formed from the particles in the outer accretion disk, eventually became the planets, the moons, the asteroids, the meteors, and the comets. In the early solar system, these bodies were like giant billiard balls, often colliding, sometimes merging, sometimes breaking apart. Our moon was almost certainly the product of one of these massive collisions.

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Event 6

“EARTH, WIND AND FIRE”
THE FIRST ROCKS, OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERE
4.5 billion years ago

Formation of Earth's ContinentsIt is likely that after a hard rocky crust formed on the earth it was periodically re-melted from impacts with other large planetary bodies in the early solar system. Finally, the earth hardened into rocky plates that continued to move through the course of the earth’s history. The core of these plates, called cratons, became the cores of the continents, composed of lighter granites riding over the heavier basalt oceanic crust. Much of the water that made up the oceans is believed to have come from comets impacting the early earth as well as water vapor produced by early volcanoes. It is believed that the earth’s early atmosphere contained almost no free oxygen (compared to about 20 percent today), but was composed primarily of water vapor (about 80 percent), carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia, and methane. (For comparison, our modern atmosphere is composed primarily of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent).

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Event 7

“JUST ADD WATER”
THE ORIGINS OF LIFE
3.8 billion years ago

DNA moleculeThe most remarkable event in the history of our Solar System was the emergence of Life. How self-replicating organisms emerged from an inorganic world is one of the great mysteries of science. All known modern life forms (about 1.75 million species) reproduce, grow, eat, excrete, breathe, and usually move. We humans are just one of these species of life, all of which are carbon-based.

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Event 8

“THE GREAT RUST”
THE ADDITION OF OXYGEN TO THE ATMOSPHERE AND OCEANS
3 billion years ago

CyanobacteriaAll over the world, starting about 3 billion and peaking about 2.3 billion years ago, something remarkable happened. The earth rusted. Amazingly, the tiny iron minerals in the once-stagnant oceans rusted or oxidized with the addition of oxygen to these seas, forming iron oxide. And that oxygen was apparently produced by lowly single-celled bacteria!

Read more: Event 8

Event 9

“SNOWBALL EARTH”
THE FIRST ICE AGES
2.2 billion years ago

Snowball EarthImagine a world so cold that all of the surface water of the oceans froze solid, the entire earth covered with ice. The average temperature would have been 74 degrees below zero, with temperatures at the equator as cold as Antarctica is today. This may have happened at least three times in the earth’s history, first at around 2.2 billion years ago, then at 710 million years ago, and again about 640 million years ago. Simple forms of life could have survived in the seas below the ice layer. These super-cold phases may have been caused by a periodic reduction in “greenhouse gases” (carbon dioxide and methane) in the atmosphere (such gases tend to warm the planet, so a reduction of these gases would cool the planet), combined with the fact that the sun was also dimmer in the past. Such extreme super-cold phases may have prevented more advanced forms of life to evolve during the first few billion years of the earth’s history.

Read more: Event 9

Event 10

“KINGDOM OF BEASTS”
THE RISE OF ANIMALS
1 billion years ago

Sponge or Spongia officinalisWe belong to the kingdom Animalia, better known as the animals. Unlike plants, animals usually move around freely and find and ingest their food for energy (rather than relying on the sun for photosynthesis). Animals are multicellular organisms (having many cells), and are eukaryotes (each cell having a nucleus.) It is thought that the earliest animals, as well as sexual reproduction, first emerged around 1 billion years ago. Tracks and burrows in rocks of this age suggest that some of the earliest multicellular animal life (the Metazoa) were worm-like, and would have been the most complex form of life at the time.

Read more: Event 10

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1

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe,
the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

.

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe, the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

View Time Scale >>

1

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

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2

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

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3

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

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4

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

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5

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

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6

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

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7

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

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8

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

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9

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

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10

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

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2

"All Creatures Great and Small:
The Cambrian Explosion of
Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

.

"Animal House:
The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

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11

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

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12

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

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13

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

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14

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

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15

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

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16

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

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17

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

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18

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

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19

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

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20

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

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3

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction
and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

.

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

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21

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

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22

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

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23

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

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24

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

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25

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

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26

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

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27

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

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28

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

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29

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

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30

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

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4

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids,
the Role of Rock,
and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

.

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids, the Role of Rock, and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

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31

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

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32

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

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33

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

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34

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

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35

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

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36

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

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37

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

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38

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

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39

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

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40

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

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5

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens
and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

.

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

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41

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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42

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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43

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

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44

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

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45

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

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46

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

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47

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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48

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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49

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

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50

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

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6

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language,
Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

.

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language, Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

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51

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

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52

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

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53

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

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54

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

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55

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

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56

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

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57

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

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58

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

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59

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

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60

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

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7

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions
and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

.

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

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61

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

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62

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

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63

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

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64

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

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65

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

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66

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

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67

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

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68

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

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69

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

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70

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

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8

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition
to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

.

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

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71

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

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72

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

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73

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

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74

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

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75

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

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76

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

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77

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

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78

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

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79

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

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80

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

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9

"Modern Times: The Last Century,
Laying the Foundations of
the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

.

"Modern Times: The Last Century, Laying the Foundations of the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

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81

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

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82

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

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83

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

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84

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

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85

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

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86

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

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87

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

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88

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

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89

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

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90

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

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10

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations
and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

.

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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91

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

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92

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

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93

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

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94

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

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95

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

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96

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

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97

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

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98

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

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99

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

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100

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

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