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Time Scale 10

“THE AGE OF CONNECTIONS:
THE PAST DECADE OF INNOVATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS”
The last 10 years

Wind Park in Galicia, Spain

This is a windpark in Galicia, Spain. In 2010, windpower produced 16% of Spain's energy needs. Spain is the fourth largest wind energy producer in the world, following the United States, Germany, and China.

Credit: Photo by Arnejohs, Courtesy of Wikipedia.

What are the most important human developments of the past decade? This question is almost certainly going to provoke argument and contention, since different people might have widely different ideas about what is most “important.” And our calculations of importance may factor in, to varying degrees, perceived impact on our lives now, in the current day, as well as forecasts of potential mid-range or long-range effects on human populations and on the rest of our ecosystem, including other organisms (plants, animals, etc.), the earth’s atmosphere, oceans and water supplies, climate and weather systems, and overall resources.

Many important developments were actually refinements or new applications of older technologies. Satellite technologies allow you to pinpoint your exact location on the earth, and new imaging techniques allow you to zoom in on your house from space. Music is downloadable, with a pocket-sized player holding thousands of songs. Technologies trying to free us from the tyranny of petroleum dependence in our energy needs are being developed. We have now mapped the human genome, and we are exploring other planets and other moons in our solar system. And, after years of debate and controversy, there is growing consensus that our emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels are creating a serious global warming over time.

This list of these events is intended to be controversial; it is likely that many of you would pick some different things than we did.

This time period sets the stage for our future destiny as a species and for the destiny of the rest of the planet.

Event 91

“WHERE THE HECK ARE WE?”
WIDESPREAD USE OF GPS & SATELLITE IMAGING

gps-satellite-orbitsOne of the major everyday practical benefits of the space program (besides Teflon!) has been the use of orbiting satellites for global communication (satellite TV, weather forecasting, long-distance phone calls) as well as being able to find out precisely where you are on the earth. By triangulating your position with a global positioning device (now built into most modern cell phones), using at least four GPS satellites, you can presently pinpoint your location to astonishing degree of precision and tell what time it is. And with such tools as Google Earth, you can see detailed satellite images of your house, your street, cities, and natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon and Mount Everest.

Read more: Event 91

Event 92

“CH-CH-CH-CH-CHANGES, TURN AND FACE THE STRAIN…”
OVERPOPULATION & CLIMATE CHANGE

Population Growth Chart Human population on the Earth has increased dramatically in the last 200 years. From a mere 1 billion people in the year 1800, the number of people rose to over 1.5 billion by 1900, and now has climbed to almost 7 billion today. Some projections estimate that the world population could reach 10.5 billion by the year 2050, which would be a 50% rise in just 40 or so years. This population increase is primarily due to more efficient food-growing and food-distribution technologies as well as new medical advances such as antibiotics. And all of these people, with all of their needs for food, energy, transportation, and goods in our modern mechanized world, are currently straining the world’s resources and drastically affecting world climate. This acceleration cannot be sustained in the long run: famine, drought, disease, warfare, and political turmoil will take their toll on societies living too close to the edge, that have too many people to survive a major catastrophe on a planet with a quickly warming climate, melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and drastic climatic events (such as the ‘epidemic’ we have been experiencing of extreme droughts, terrible hurricanes, and raging floods). Controlling the world’s population and our effect on the Earth’s climate will be major challenges to the human species in the future.

Read more: Event 92

Event 93

“GREEN MACHINES”
ALTERNATIVE ENERGY

Solar panelsThe world’s present energy needs are primarily met by the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels. Gas, oil, and coal are burned to power engines, heat your house, and produce electricity. Not only does this increase the carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, a cause of global warming, but these are non-renewable resources. It is estimated that the vast stores of these resources will be all but depleted in the next century or two. Nuclear energy is another source currently used, based on the fission of uranium isotopes. The future of nuclear energy may hold great potential, but it has already been shown to be dangerous in the case of a malfunction or if not properly monitored (as in the case of Three Mile Island in the United States and Chernobol in the Ukraine). Nuclear reactors produce radioactive waste that must be disposed of and can be deadly for hundreds of years, and nuclear reactors can also be used by countries to develop weapons-grade uranium, or become potential sites of terrorism.

Read more: Event 93

Event 94

“WHO ARE YOU?”
THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

Human Genome ProjectIn the nucleus of every one of your body cells is all of the information that is needed to theoretically make another copy or clone of yourself. This information is found in your 23 pairs of chromosomes (one of each pair inherited from your mother and one from your father). The first sequencing of a complete human genome was accomplished in June of 2000. This research revealed that the DNA making up your chromosomes contains approximately 3 billion base-pairs organized into around 25,000 genes that code for proteins. It also appeared that perhaps 97 percent of the genetic code had no apparent function (sometimes called “junk DNA”).

Read more: Event 94

Event 95

“CLOSER ENCOUNTERS”
RECENT ADVANCES IN ASTRONOMY

10 095 001zmars roverThis is a great time to be an astronomer. New telescopes, new unmanned probes to other planetary bodies, and new analytical techniques are rapidly increasing our understanding of the cosmos and its origins. The Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, and a number of probes to other planetary bodies in the solar system, and the powerful Hubble Telescope have virtually revolutionized our view of the cosmos, and we can expect many more exciting discoveries in the future.

Read more: Event 95

Event 96

“CELLMATES”
STEM CELL & RELATED RESEARCH

Stem cells as seen through a microscopeStem cells are fertilized embryonic cells that have not yet differentiated into specialized body cells (e.g. bone, muscle, heart, fat, tendon, brain). Recent research has indicated that these stem cells have great potential in the treatment and possible cure of a variety of human ailments such as Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s Diseases. Stem cells can be directed to develop into specific types of body cells. There has been controversy associated with stem cell research, as some people have regarded these fertilized embryos as the beginnings of human life. Others argue that these stem cells are an invaluable tool for the benefit of humankind.

Read more: Event 96

Event 97

“KEEP ON SEARCHIN”
WIDESPREAD USE OF SEARCH ENGINES

Search enginesThe ability to do research and ferret out important or obscure information has never been easier, largely due to web search engines that allow you to enter key words or concepts and even ask questions. Search engines such as Google, Yahoo!, Bing, Ask, and in China, Baidu, have revolutionized the way students, professional scholars, journalists, politicians, and the general public can find things out. Web search engines allow the user to find appropriate web sites for the subject, to mine information from databases, and to access images, video clips, songs, maps, news, online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia, books, scholarly articles, stores, and so on. And the list keeps on growing.

Read more: Event 97

Event 98

“SAY HELLO TO MY LITTLE FRIENDS”
THE RISE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

Bucky ballNanotechnology is an aspect of material science that deals with structures that are less than 100 nanometers in size (a nanometer is one-millionth of a millimeter). For comparison, the thickness of a human hair is about 50 microns (or 1/20th of a millimeter), or 50,000 nanometers. Nanotechnology can be applied to a range of purposes, including industry, medicine, and other types of research. It is basically concerned with manipulating materials on an atomic or molecular scale.

Read more: Event 98

Event 99

“HERE, THERE, AND EVERYWHERE…”
INSTANTANEOUS COMMUNICATION & WORLD-WIDE CONNECTIONS

Three-dimensional representation of the internet connections worldwideAlthough portable cell phones and computers have been around for the last several decades, it is only in the last ten years that they have become a much more valuable everyday tool. With wireless connection, these devices can be used for email, connect to the internet, telephone anywhere around the world, have video face-to-face telephone calls, find out exactly where you are, do your banking, pay your bills, check the weather, check what movies are playing in town (and how they were reviewed), take pictures or videos, find maps to route you, read major newspapers, look things up on an on-line encyclopedia or dictionary, keep in touch by instant messaging (such as “twittering”), plan and organize social movements and protests, download and play music, keep your daily calendar, check the stock market, etc. etc. Such versatility in a pocket-sized device would have been unheard of just a few years ago.

Read more: Event 99

Event 100

“LIVING FOR THE FUTURE”
THE IDEA OF SUSTAINABILITY

The recycle symbolSustainability has been described as “the capacity to endure.” This is a big question, what human population levels and overall level of resource use will our fragile planet be able to endure? It is becoming apparent to many scientists and world leaders that the human species is living beyond its income. We cannot sustain the rate at which we consume fossil fuels. Sustainability would include population control, alternative energy sources, the preservation of important natural resources such as forests and wetlands, maintaining natural ecosystems of plants and animals, the reuse and recycling of the resources that we use, reversing the enormous extinction rates occurring today (estimated to be thousands of times greater than the average over the course of the evolution of life), constructing energy-efficient buildings made of ecologically friendly materials, and consuming local rather than imported foods.

Read more: Event 100

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1

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe,
the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

.

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe, the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

View Time Scale >>

1

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

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2

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

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3

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

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4

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

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5

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

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6

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

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7

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

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8

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

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9

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

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10

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

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2

"All Creatures Great and Small:
The Cambrian Explosion of
Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

.

"Animal House:
The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

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11

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

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12

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

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13

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

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14

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

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15

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

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16

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

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17

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

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18

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

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19

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

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20

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

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3

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction
and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

.

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

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21

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

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22

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

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23

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

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24

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

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25

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

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26

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

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27

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

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28

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

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29

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

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30

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

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4

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids,
the Role of Rock,
and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

.

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids, the Role of Rock, and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

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31

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

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32

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

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33

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

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34

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

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35

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

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36

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

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37

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

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38

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

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39

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

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40

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

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5

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens
and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

.

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

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41

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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42

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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43

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

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44

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

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45

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

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46

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

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47

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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48

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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49

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

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50

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

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6

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language,
Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

.

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language, Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

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51

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

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52

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

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53

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

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54

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

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55

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

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56

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

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57

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

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58

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

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59

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

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60

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

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7

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions
and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

.

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

View Time Scale >>

61

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

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62

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

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63

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

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64

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

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65

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

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66

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

View Event >>

67

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

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68

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

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69

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

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70

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

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8

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition
to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

.

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

View Time Scale >>

71

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

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72

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

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73

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

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74

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

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75

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

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76

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

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77

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

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78

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

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79

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

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80

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

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9

"Modern Times: The Last Century,
Laying the Foundations of
the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

.

"Modern Times: The Last Century, Laying the Foundations of the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

View Time Scale >>

81

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

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82

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

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83

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

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84

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

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85

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

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86

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

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87

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

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88

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

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89

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

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90

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

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10

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations
and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

.

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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91

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

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92

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

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93

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

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94

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

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95

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

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96

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

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97

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

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98

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

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99

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

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100

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

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