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Time Scale 1 - Cosmic Origins
Events - 1
The Big Bang:
13.7 billion years ago
2
The first stars:
13.5 billion years ago
3
Supernovas & heavy elements:
13.4 billion years ago
4
The first galaxies:
13 billion years ago
5
The solar system & earth:
4.6 billion years ago
6
First rocks, seas & atmosphere:
4.5 billion years ago
7
The first life:
3.5 billion years ago
8
Cyanobacteria, oxygen, & iron:
3 billion years ago
9
The first ice ages:
2.2 billion years ago
10
The first animals & sex:
1 billion years ago
>

Event 6

“EARTH, WIND AND FIRE”
THE FIRST ROCKS, OCEANS AND ATMOSPHERE
4.5 billion years ago

Formation of Earth's Continents
Early Earth and Moon. This is an artist's conception of early earth, as continents and oceans are being formed with the cooling of earth's molten surface.
Credit: Illustration by Chesley Bonestell, courtesy of Bonestell LLC. This image is used with permission. All rights reserved.

It is likely that after a hard rocky crust formed on the earth it was periodically re-melted from impacts with other large planetary bodies in the early solar system. Finally, the earth hardened into rocky plates that continued to move through the course of the earth’s history. The core of these plates, called cratons, became the cores of the continents, composed of lighter granites riding over the heavier basalt oceanic crust. Much of the water that made up the oceans is believed to have come from comets impacting the early earth as well as water vapor produced by early volcanoes. It is believed that the earth’s early atmosphere contained almost no free oxygen (compared to about 20 percent today), but was composed primarily of water vapor (about 80 percent), carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia, and methane. (For comparison, our modern atmosphere is composed primarily of nitrogen (78 percent) and oxygen (21 percent).

Early earth's magma ocean
This is an image of the early Earth surface. It depicts the Earth as oceans of magma with fragments of thin crust, probably composed of elements similar to today's igneous rocks.
Credit: Image courtesy of NASA/Nicholas M. Short, Sr. (RST-Remote Sensing Tutorial)

It is hard to conceive of how inhospitable the young Earth was for the first half billion years of its existence. It lacked oxygen in its atmosphere, it roiled with toxic gases outgassing from cooling rock and volcanic eruptions, it was extremely hot, and it endured massive bombardments by asteroids and other celestial objects over the course of hundreds of millions of years. Water built up gradually on the surface from condensation and from ice and water that came to earth along with asteroids, comets, and icy materials from the Kuiper belt and beyond, and built up the early oceans.

Our Moon has made significant contributions to our Earth. The seasonal changes we experience on Earth today are due to the axial tilt of the Earth (23.45 degrees) relative to plane in which it orbits, and it is believed this tilt is a direct result of the oblique blow made by the Mars-sized object that collided with the Earth and led to the formation of the moon. The experience of a warmer seasonal ‘summer’ period happens in the northern hemisphere when that portion of our sphere is tilted toward the sun, and then six months later in the southern hemisphere when the Earth’s orbit presents that part of our planet toward the sun. (Interestingly, in the Northern Hemisphere, the Earth is actually closer to the sun during winter than it is in the summer). Overall such seasonality helps create a range of environments in which eventual life forms could adapt and diversify. If the Earth’s rotation axis were not tilted, climate would not vary seasonally the way it does on Earth today, and there likely would be differing climatic bands ringing the Earth according to latitude. The influence of our Moon (which is quite large relative to the size of our planet) on amplifying ocean tides also has significance for the ultimate evolution and diversification of life, as oscillating tide levels provide regularly shifting and varied environments in which life forms evolved and adapted.

It has also been found that the Earth has an unusually high amount of certain metals incorporated into its mantle, which likely represent the inner core of this moon-producing colliding body left behind when the lighter mantle materials careened off the Earth. These metals have been incorporated into the Earth’s mantle and shaped by earth processes over time into the ore deposits we mine and utilize for our technological innovations. It is interesting to speculate what kinds of technologies would be possible without these readily available metallic ores to work with

The history of the Earth’s continents it tied to an intricate sequence of movements of seven or eight tectonic plates upon which the lithosphere (the Earth’s crust and mantle) rides. The movement of the parts of the lithosphere on these plates has produced an ongoing, elaborate tableau of land masses colliding and uniting (converging), as well as dividing and drifting apart (diverging) over the course of billions of years. Many people have heard of Pangaea, the supercontinent that started breaking up about 200 million years ago to form Laurasia (which then broke up to form North America and Eurasia) and Gondwanaland (which then broke up to form the southern continents). But prior to the formation of Pangaea there were a number of previous supercontinents. The major ones include Columbia, which formed by 2 billion years ago and broke up between 1.5 and 1.3 billion years ago; Rodinia, which formed by 1 billion years ago and started breaking up by 750 million years ago; and Pangaea, which formed by 250 million years ago and gradually broke apart between 175 and 55 million years ago, resulting eventually in the continents in their present configuration. Throughout this shifting of the tectonic plates and merging and dividing of the continental masses, these continents were also moving relative to the poles, shifting from polar regions to tropical regions and back again, and the oceans were likewise changing in their size, shape, currents and connections with other bodies of water.

 


HOW DO WE KNOW?

Modern volcanic eruptions and the gasses they produce give us clues to what the earth’s primordial atmosphere was like. Gas inclusions in early rocks have trapped small samples of earlier atmospheres as well.


WHY SHOULD I CARE?

The Earth is our home, the only home we know. We and all the other living organisms on our planet have evolved to adapt to the Earth’s changing nature – its evolving atmosphere and continents and seas. We don’t know for sure if there is another planet in the universe where we and other living creatures on earth could survive – it is possible, but we have evolved to survive within certain limits of solar radiation, heat and cold, and availability of water.

 


 

WEB RESOURCES

News articles on finds of the earliest rocks on earth:
http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=95053368

A New Contender for Earth's Oldest Rock:
http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE48O7JW20080925

The Oldest Rock in the World:
http://scienceray.com/earth-sciences/geology/the-oldest-rock-in-the-world-a-missing-link-in-a-billion-year-gap/

A documentary clip from a National Geographic film, telling of the discovery of water molecules trapped in ancient minerals:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V21hFmZP5zM

Traces of Earth's oldest rocks found in Australia:
http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/journal/traces-of-the-earths-first-rocks-found-in-wa.htm

Evolution of Earth's atmosphere:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_atmosphere#Evolution_of_Earth.27s_atmosphere

The Hadean period of Earth's history:
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/162618/earths_hadean_period.html

Tracking down a mistak, revised theory of the Hadean period of Earth:
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Zircon/zircon3.php

 

BOOKS

Allaby, Michael et al. The Encyclopedia of Earth: A Complete Visual Guide. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2008.

Bevan, Alex and John De Laeter. Meteorites: A Journey through Space and Time. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. 2002.

Jones, Tom and Ellen Stofan. Planetology: Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. 2008.

Levin, Harold L. The Earth Through Time. Ft. Worth: Harcourt Brace. 2010.

Luhr, James F. (Editor). Earth: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York: DK Publishing. 2007.

May, Brian, Patrick Moore, and Chris Lintott. BANG! The Complete History of the Universe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2008.

Murdin, Paul. Secrets of the Universe: How We Discovered the Cosmos. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2009.

Norton, O. Richard. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Meteorites. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2002.

Redfern, Ron. Origins: The Evolution of the Continents, Oceans, and Life. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. 2000.

Ronan, Colin A. Universe: The Cosmos Explained. London: Quantum Publishing. 2007.

Stewart, Iain and John Lynch. Earth: The Biography. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. 2007.

van Kranendonk, Martin J., R. Hugh Smithies and Vickie C. Bennett (Editors). Earth’s Oldest Rocks. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 15 (K.C. Condie, Series Editor). Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2007.

VIDEOS

Cosmic Voyage. Narrated by Morgan Freeman. IMAX and Warner Brothers. 2002.

Earth, The Biography: The Story of our World. BBC Worldwide Ltd. 2008.

How the Earth was Made. The History Channel, A&E Television Network. 2008.

Miracle Planet. Ambrose DVD. Five part series, includes: 1. The Violent Past; 2. Snowball Earth; 3. New Frontiers; 4. Extinction and Rebirth; 5. Survival of the Fittest. Narrated by Christopher Plummer. 2005.

Origins: Fourteen Billion Years of Cosmic Evolution. NOVA, WGBH, Boston Video. 2004. Hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson.

The Universe. The History Channel. (A multi-year television series).

Understanding the Universe: Introduction to Astronomy. The Teaching Company. 2007. (96 presentations by Alex Filippenko).

Universe: A Journey from Earth to the Edge of the Cosmos. Quercus. 2008.

Use the navigator to the right
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1

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe,
the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

.

"From Nothing to Everything:
The Origins of the Universe, the Solar System, Earth, and Life"
13.7 billion to 1 billion years ago

View Time Scale >>

1

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

"The Big Bang"
The Origins of Matter, Energy, Space, and Time
13.7 billion years ago

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2

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

"Great Balls of Fire"
The First Stars
13.5 billion years ago

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3

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

"Cosmic Alchemy"
The Creation of the Heavier Elements
13.4 billion years ago

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4

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

"Spinning Wheels"
The First Galaxies
13 billion years ago

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5

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

"Here Comes the Sun"
The Birth of the Solar System, Including the Earth
4.6 billion years ago

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6

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

"Earth, Wind and Fire"
The First Rocks, Oceans and Atmosphere
4.5 billion years ago

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7

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

"Just Add Water"
The Origins of Life
3.8 billion years ago

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8

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

"The Great Rust"
The Addition of Oxygen to the Atmosphere and Oceans
3 billion years ago

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9

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

"Snowball Earth"
The First Ice Ages
2.2 billion years ago

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10

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

"Kingdom of Beasts"
The Rise of Animals
1 billion years ago

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2

"All Creatures Great and Small:
The Cambrian Explosion of
Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

.

"Animal House:
The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life and its Aftershocks"
1 billion to 100 million years ago

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11

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

"Movers and Shakers"
The First Definite Multicellular Animals
600 million years ago

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12

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

"AnimalHouse"
The Cambrian Explosion
543 million years ago

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13

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

"In Search of the Lost Chordate"
Finding the Ancestor of Vertebrates (and Ourselves)
530 million years ago

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14

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

"Get a Backbone"
The Rise of the Vertebrates
525 million years ago

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15

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

"Get out of the Pool"
Early Amphibians
360 million years ago

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16

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

"Landlubbers"
The First Reptiles
315 million years ago

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17

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

"The Great Dying"
The Permian Extinction
250 million years ago

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18

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

"Got Milk?"
Early Mammals and Dinosaurs
220 - 200 million years ago

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19

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

"Up, Up, and Away"
The Earliest Birds
145 million years ago

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20

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

"Flower Power"
The First Flowering Plants
125 million years ago

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3

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction
and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

.

"The Meek Inheritors: the Dinosaur Extinction and the Rise of Mammals"
100 million to 10 million years ago

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21

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

"Cretaceous Park"
The Later Dinosaurs
95-65 million years ago

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22

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

"One Extraterrestial Impact Can Ruin your Whole Day":
The Dinosaur Extinction
65 million years ago

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23

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

"A Warm and Fuzzy Feeling"
The Mammalian Radiation
60 million years ago

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24

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

"Orogenous Zone"
The Rise of the Himalayas
55 million years ago

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25

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

"Of the First Order"
The Radiation of the Primates
55 million years ago

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26

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

"The Land Down Under"
The Origin of Australia and its Animals
40 million years ago

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27

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

"Hey, Hey, We're the Monkeys"
The Rise of Monkeys
35 million years ago

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28

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

"Grazing in the Grass"
The Spread of Grasslands and Grazing Animals
Beginning 25 million years ago

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29

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

"The Sultans of Swing"
The Rise of Apes
23 million years ago

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30

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

"Father of Kong"
The Earliest Gorilla-like Forms
10 million years ago

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4

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids,
the Role of Rock,
and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

.

"Upstanding Apes:
The Rise of Hominids, the Role of Rock, and Food for Thought"
10 million to 1 million years ago

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31

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

"Branching Out"
The Last Shared Ancestor of Apes and Humans
7 million years ago

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32

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

"Upstanding Apes"
The Earliest Bipedal Hominins
6 to 4 million years ago

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33

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

"I am an Ape-Man"
The Earlier Australopithecine
4.0-2.5 million years ago

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34

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

"The Big Chill"
The Beginning of Climatic Cooling
3 to 2 million years ago

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35

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

"Our Poor Cousins"
The Later Australopithecine and their Extinction
2.6-1.0 million yeas ago

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36

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

"The Role of Rock"
The Earliest Stone Tools
2.6 million years ago

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37

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

"I'm Your Handy Man"
The Emergence of the Genus Homo and Brain Expansion
1.9-1.5 million years ago

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38

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

"Bigger and Badder"
The Emergence of Homo Erectus
1.8 million years ago

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39

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

"Out of Africa"
The Earliest Eurasians
1.8 million years ago

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40

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

"Axes of Power"
The Invention of the Handaxe
1.76 million years ago

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5

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens
and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

.

"Becoming Human (or Just About):
The Rise of Homo Sapiens and Our Neanderthal Cousins"
1 million to 100,000 years ago

View Time Scale >>

41

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Big Brains, Big Faces"
Homo heidelbergensis and Probably Language
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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42

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

"Fearful Symmetry"
Later Refined Handaxes
500,000 to 250,000 years ago

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43

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

"Bring Out Your Dead"
The Origins of Ritual Behavior
400,000 years ago

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44

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

"Get the Point?"
The First Spears
400,000 years ago

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45

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

"Chips Off the Old Block"
Prepared Core Technologies
300,000 years ago

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46

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

"Light My Fire"
The Controlled Use of Fire
300,000 years ago

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47

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Almost Human"
Neandertals and Nearly Modern Humans
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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48

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

"Welcome to Middle Earth"
The Middle Palaeolithic
Beginning 250,000 years ago

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49

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

"Seashells by the Seashore"
Intensive Exploitation of Seafoods
165,000 years ago

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50

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

"A Modern Stone Age Family"
The Emergence of Homo Sapiens
160,000 years ago

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6

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language,
Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

.

"The Creative Explosion:
The Rise of Symbolism, Language, Religion, Art, and Music"
100,000 to 10,000 years ago

View Time Scale >>

51

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

"Points of Conflict"
The Earliest Compound Tools & Points
100,000 years ago

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52

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

"Rest in Peace"
The First Burials
90,000 years ago

View Event >>

53

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

"Bling-Bling"
The First Personal Decoration
80,000 years ago

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54

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

"A Roof Over Your Head"
The First Architecture
42,000 years ago

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55

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

"Blade Runners"
Upper Palaeolithic Blade Technologies
40,000 years ago

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56

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

"Brave New Worlds"
The Peopling of Australia and the Americas
40,000 to 12,000 years ago

View Event >>

57

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

"Express Yourself"
The First Representational Art & Music
35,000 years ago

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58

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

"A Stitch in Time"
The First Needles and Sewing
25,000 years ago

View Event >>

59

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

"Bend Me, Shape Me"
The First Pottery
16,000 years ago

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60

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

"Draw Back Your Bow"
The First Bow and Arrow
11,000 years ago

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7

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions
and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

.

"From Farm to the City:
The Neolithic and Urban Revolutions and their Consequences"
10,000 to 1,000 years ago

View Time Scale >>

61

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
The First Boats
10,000 years ago

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62

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

"Down on the Farm"
The Neolithic Revolution
10,000 years ago

View Event >>

63

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

"Heavy Metal"
The Origins of Metallurgy
8,000 years ago

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64

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

"Easy Riders"
The Development of Ships and Mounted Horse Transportation
6,000 to 5,000 years ago

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65

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

"We Built This City"
Cities and Complex Societies
5,500 years ago

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66

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

"Write This Down"
The Origins of Writing and Notation
5,000 years ago

View Event >>

67

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

"Big Wheels Keep on Turnin"
Wheeled Vehicles
5,000 years ago

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68

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

"Iron Man"
The Iron Age
3,500 years ago (1500 BC)

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69

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

"Power to the People"
The First Democracy
2,560 years ago (550 BC)

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70

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

"What's Your Plan?"
Large-scale Urban Planning
2,210 years ago (200 B.C.)

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8

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition
to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

.

"Ages of Enlightenment:
From the Dark Ages of Superstition to the Scientific Revolution"
1,000 to 100 years ago

View Time Scale >>

71

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

"Fire and Brimstone"
The Rise of Firearms
Beginning 1300 AD

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72

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

"A Reawakening"
The Renaissance in the Western World
Beginning 1400 AD

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73

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

"Land Ho!"
Age of Exploration & Exploitation
Beginning 1400 AD

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74

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

"Hot off the Presses"
The Printing Press and Movable Type
Beginning 1455 AD

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75

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

"From Superstition to Science"
The Scientific Revolution
Beginning 1543 AD

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76

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

"All Fired Up"
The Industrial Revolution
Beginning 1760 AD

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77

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

"Start Me Up"
Powered Modern Transport
Beginning 1802 AD

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78

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

"You Oughta Be in Pictures"
Photography and Cinematography
Beginning 1826 AD

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79

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

"From a Distance"
Long-Distance Communications
Beginning 1830 AD

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80

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

"Bright Lights, Big City"
Electric Light and Power
Beginning 1879 AD

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9

"Modern Times: The Last Century,
Laying the Foundations of
the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

.

"Modern Times: The Last Century, Laying the Foundations of the World We Live In"
100 to 10 years ago

View Time Scale >>

81

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

"It's All Relative"
Relativity and Quantum Theory
Late 1800s, early 1900s

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82

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

"Rocket Man"
Rockets, Satellites, and Lunar Landings
Beginning 1926 AD

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83

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

"You're On the Air"
Television
Beginning 1935 AD

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84

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

"Bits and Bytes"
Computers, Transistors, Silicon Chips
Beginning 1937 AD

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85

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

"When You're a Jet"
Jet Aircraft
1939 AD

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86

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

"Miracle Drugs & Medical Devices"
Penicillin and Other Medical Advances
Beginning 1941 AD

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87

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

"The Genie Has Left the Bottle"
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Beginning 1942 AD

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88

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

"Cracking the Code"
DNA Structure & Genetic Engineering
Beginning 1953 AD

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89

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

"Can You Hear Me Now?"
Advanced Telecommunications
Beginning 1973 AD

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90

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

"Surf's Up!"
The World Wide Web
Beginning 1989 AD

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10

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations
and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

.

"The Age of Connections:
The Past Decade of Innovations and Their Implications"
The last 10 years

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91

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

"Where the Heck Are We?"
Widespread Use of GPS & Satellite Imaging

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92

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

"Ch-Ch-Ch-Ch-Changes, that Make the Strain..."
Overpopulation & Climate Change

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93

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

"Green Machines"
Alternative Energy

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94

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

"Who Are You?"
The Human Genome Project

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95

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

"Closer Encounters"
Recent Advances in Astronomy

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96

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

"Cellmates"
Stem Cell & Related Research

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97

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

"Keep Searchin"
Widespread Use of Search Engines

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98

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

"Say Hello to My Little Friends"
The Rise of Nanotechnology

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99

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

"Here, There, and Everywhere..."
Instantaneous Communication & World-Wide Connections

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100

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

"Living for the Future"
The Idea of Sustainability

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